Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Binge Drinking Freshmen Emily* is a typical female college student on the outside, with a shocking story hidden on the inside. Emily began drinking before most students rode on their first bus Ã¢â¬ ¦ school bus! At the age of 4, Emily wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t given candy, but alcohol instead. As an incentive for repeating words back to her aunt she was given red wine. As Emily got older, her mother brought her to family parties, oblivious to what was going on. At these parties, Emily would typically drink scotch or whiskey, provided to her by the older men in the family. When 6th grade rolled around, Emily began drinking with friends, sneaking it into her room for sleepovers. High school was the same idea, although now, Emily consistently found herself drinking alone in the mornings, even before going to school. After graduation, Emily left home in D.C. for BostonÃ¢â¬â¢s Northeastern University. She described her first year in the city of Boston. Ã¢â¬Å"I went all out; I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about having my mom catch me drunk, I drank as much as I wanted to, whenever I wanted,Ã¢â¬ she said. While, "going all out," Emily made other bad decisions, as a result of her bad drinking habits. Ã¢â¬Å"I slept with a couple guys and never used protection. I had to use the Morning after pill on one occasion.Ã¢â¬ Even after testing herself for HIV and other STDs, she continued to binge drink every weekend. This went on until last fall, when she nearly lost her life leaving a bar downtown. It was a cold, dark, rain driven late night/early morning in Boston and Emily wanted nothing more than to go home to bed. Yelling obscenities after leaving the bar, she was hit by a cab. Her head slammed into the pavement and she had a seizure. Her friends called 911 immediately and she was rushed to the hospital. After spending a few days in the hospital, Emily realized like always after a night of drinking that she was having trouble remembering the details. Only this time, things were different, she told me she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t form short/long-term memories or even remember things in her past. Emily decided to take a look at her life, ultimately realizing she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t happy with herself. Cold turkey appeared to be her only option with alcohol at the time and she gave it a shot. Even with stories such as these being published in newspapers throughout the country on a daily basis,
Monday, January 13, 2020
The American west is marvellous, it is large with grand landscapes and mountains reaching to the sky . The plains unfold to the horizon and the vistas present an unimaginable panorama. Just like any where else in the world, water is an essential element to life here but it is scarce hence creating the westÃ¢â¬â¢s vulnerability. Precipitation is generally low and cannot support agriculture it is for this reason that agriculture is only possible through irrigation. This precipitation is not only scarce but scarcest in the summers when it is mostly needed but falls disproportionately and mostly in the mountains in the winter. The only saving grace is that in winter it precipitates as snow and stays as snow packs throughout the winter. It is on the basis of these weather patterns that the winter sports tourism is established. This industry has served as the main economic driving machine of the west and other other areas for decades. However, changing climatic patterns and global warming has emerged as a serious threat to the existence of the winter sports industry. Projected increases in average global temperatures due to increases in green house gases in the atmosphere has been incriminated in widespread glacial and white cap decreases, ocean level rise and warming but most importantly in the reduction of snow cover and the decrease in the duration of winter tourism. The unpredictability of the future and the climate sensitive nature of winter sports tourism has led to many initiative aimed curbing the increase in green house gases and consequently making snow available. Introduction Compelling evidence suggests that global climate has been on a progressive change since the industrial era and is projected to continue over the 21st century and beyond. Global warming and climate change is an unequivocal phenomenon. Global mean temperature has been on the increase with an approximate increase of 0. 760 C between 1850-1899. the same increase has been found between 2001 and 2005. This means that global predictions of temperature bear a >90% probability (IPPC. Climate Change and Tourism, 2007). These increases in average temperatures are a direct result of human activities that increase the concentrations of green house gases in the atmosphere. The extent of these discernible human influences have also extended to other climate change aspects such as temperature extremes, changes in wind patterns, continental average temperatures and ocean warming. The same is applicable to the widespread glacial and white cap decreases coupled with warming of the ocean surface temperatures, the result is a sea level rise of approximately 1. 8mm yearly from 1961-2003 and approximately 3. 1mm yearly from 1993-2003. The resultant effect of biological response in ecosystems and species diversity presents an unpleasant scenario and these statistics are recorded in virtually every continent. It is projected that the probability of increase in global temperatures will further accelerate green house gas emissions at the present or above the present rates. The prediction pushes overall global temperature rise by 1. 80C -4. 00C. Assuming that the atmospheric concentrations of green house gases are stabilized, the warming effect would still continue due to the levels of green house gases from past emissions and the consequent thermal inertia of oceans. The biological response would also be extrapolated to future centuries even if the levels are stabilized at the present concentrations today. The discernible manifestations worldwide will be hot temperature extremes, extreme heat waves, heavy precipitation, peak wind speeds and precipitation in tropical cyclone events and an additional heavy precipitation associated with increases in tropical sea and surface temperatures. Together with these climatic changes extra tropical storm tracks are projected to shift towards the poles. All these changes together with the decreases in show cover will continue into the future. The economic and environmental risks are unfathomable and would effectively impede nations strides towards the achievements of sustainable developments. However, there is hope that if precautions and measures are taken to reduce green house gases today the high costs of environmental and economic destruction and disruption can fairly be mitigated. This calls for lifestyle changes, economic policies and regulations and international efforts that not only help reduce the causative agents of climate change and global warming but also foster adaptation and mitigation measures to meet the challenges of climate change. Climate change and Tourism Climate change, especially global warming has grown to be a pivotal issue in the development and management of tourism. The relationship between the environment, climate and tourism sector is currently a highly sensitive economic matter. Climate change is increasingly driving tourism development and decision making, changing tourism destinations and even tourist tastes. Tourism sector remains a non negligible contributor to climatic changes. GHG emissions from transport and accommodation must be reduced in accordance with international standards. Tourism sector cannot address the challenges of climatic changes themselves and in isolation but they can only do this in the context of sustainable development and the broader international development agenda. Tourism and the sustainability of tourism destinations is dependent on climate variability. The length and the quality of seasons as well as destination choice and the level of tourist spending are all determined by climate change. Climate change and winter sports Winter sports constitute a very source of income and the reliability of snow is a key element in the touristic offer. Skiing and snowboarding are the most common forms of writer sports but others such as snow hiking and cross-country skiing also depends on the reliability and the availability of enough snow. Mountainous areas are always very sensitive to climate change hence less snow, melting permafrost, receding glaciers and extreme events such as landslides. Additionally climate change shift mountain fauna and flora. These effects pose a direct threat to ski resorts in the United States. Lower earnings in winter tourism will only serve to exacerbate economic disparities that exist between the alpine regions and the more developed urban areas. These changes will also increase the risk of only skiing at high altitude up the mountain. If this was to happen there would be an intense concentration of sports activities in certain regions as well as further putting pressure on the environmentally sensitive high mountains. The extrapolation of the effects of global warming on winter tourism extends to the viability of the mountain cable way companies that use the availability of snow as a prerequisite for their financial stability. Without snow or enough snow the profitability of the ski industry is impossible. The absence of snow in the mountains will be like having a summer without a sea. The variability of the winter season with response to climate change will deny the winter sports industry the right levels of snow at the right time. These forecasts are a necessity in planning for trips at shorter notices especially the weekends (Rolf Burki et al, 2003) Studies undertaken in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Australia, Switzerland and the United States to establish the impact of climate change on the tourism sector show severe implications especially to the winter sports industry. While some regions with high technological advances like adaptation strategies (artificial snow making) will maintain their tourism, others unable to adapt the expensive technologies will lose out. These transitions in business volumes will not only be driven by limiting snow levels but also the fact that skiers respond flexibility to snow conditions. During a snow poor season, 49% of skies are most likely to change to a resort that is fairly more snow reliable, 32% would reduce the frequency of skiing and only 4% would give up the sport. Coupled together with the fact that climate change has a direct effect on the number of ski days, those unable to adapt to expensive technologies will be disadvantaged and pushed out of business. (Rolf Burki et al, 2003). Snow resorts not concentrated in snow reliable high altitude areas will be forced to withdraw from the market because of decreasing levels of snow. For transport industries that will offer access to high altitude areas (sometimes higher than 200m) business prospects will be good due an expected increase in skiing at the high altitudes. The effect of this will be quantitative expansion of the high altitude skiing resorts hence eliciting a negative environmentally feedback effect caused by disruption of the ecologically sensitive high altitude mountain regions. Presently, this expected expansion to high altitude areas has been the theme of many concept studies that influence the opening up of High Mountain (Breiling and Charamza, 1999) It is for these effects of climate change that during a recent campaign in Portsmouth, N. H, Barrack Obama the Democratic Party presidential candidate reiterated that there is need to address the urgency of global warming on the ski industry. He said that global warming is not a future problem but a present one. This problem has made New Hampshire to have shorter sporting seasons and people are losing jobs. He further reiterated that residents of North America ski areas together with their customers should work hand in hand to change their energy spending. habits and resort to green technology if they were to prevent climate caused melt-downs (Laura Bly, 2007) Resorts have started investing in sustainable seafood practices, local food supplies, biodiesel powered snow cats and embracing the use of more energy efficient snow making equipment. To achieve this, campaigns on global warming and discounts are being offered to guests who come in hybrid cans. What is even more impressing is that resorts have taken the challenge of campaigning for these changes as well as acting as advocates for intergovernmental change. Effects of global warming have also been reported in Burlington Vt. The city is usually carpeted in December but unfortunately changing climatic conditions has created a mild situation where snowfall is meager just an inch thick. The temperatures are becoming warmer and fewer trails open. However, these fears have been allayed by the optimism of the meteorological department prediction that the season will progress as Christmas approaches. According to Michael Berry; president of the National ski Areas Association, the potential impacts winter recreation, the mountain ecosystem and the way of life of residents in these areas cannot be ignored. Global warming has a direct and profound effect on the ski business as it depends solely on the variability of weather. To drive this process of change, the association has adapted a policy to regulate and control climate change. The reduce, educate and advocate approach was adopted to help in the fight against global warming. Key in the policy is a call to ski resorts to work towards the reduction of green house gas emissions individually and collectively, educate the public and guests on the potential impacts of climate change to writer sports industry and be the advocate in pushing for institutional and regulatory changes aimed at curbing greenhouse gas emissions (Michael Berry, 2007). To this end almost half of the 59 ski resorts, who have purchased renewable energy credits or utilized green energy for their lifts and other facilities are 100% green powered hence reducing carbon dioxide emission by 427,596,000 pounds an equivalent of planting almost 17 million trees. Customers are encouraged to offset their emission and work towards increasing green energy use in their home. Generation of renewable energy through on site solar projects or micro hydro power projects and wind energy has greatly increased with Jimmy Peak Mountain Resort in Massachusetts installing the first wind turbine powered ski area in August 2007. Resort vehicle fleets are now using alternative fuels like biodiesel, they also provide or promote car pooling or mass transit use. Ski resorts are being built using green building techniques and retrofitting existing facilities all with the aim of saving energy. Though an outreach program called Ã¢â¬Å"Keep Winter coolÃ¢â¬ millions of people have been educated on global warming and encouraged to institute lifestyle changes to help curb global warming. Specific Impacts of Global Warming on Winter Tourism . Snow The financial viability and stability of the winter sports tourism industry solely depends on the availability of sufficient snow. Less snow pack is caused by higher average temperatures, on the other hand if there are extremely low temperatures at night then it follows that there is likely to be an average increase in daytime temperatures. In both cases the resultant effect is less mountain snow cover and a reduction in the duration of cover. (Stephen Saunders et al, 2005). This means that recreation will be shortened and the snow will be slushier. The big difference to earlier situation where snow cover was considerably reduced is that, the capital intensity of the winter sports tourism will be considerably high. When this is analyzed in the context of profits from ski dependent businesses, taxes from local and state governments, the financial prospects of industries in the winter tourism sector look bleak. However, the most important link between climate change and mountain tourism is less snow and, as a consequence, less earnings in ski tourism. Glaciers Statistics all over the world point to the fact that there is a general retreat of glacial cover all over the world. Taking Switzerland as an example, since 1850, the Swiss glaciers have lost slightly more than 25% of their surface. If this was to continue in the future, by 2030, approximately 20% to 70% of the total Swiss glacial cover will disappear. This is a real problem for the ski industry not only in Switzerland but across the world as ski tourists will resort to other countries with snow availability. The effect of this trend will be putting more pressure on the existing ski facilities as well as acting as an incentive for investment in high altitude areas. Permafrost Melting of permafrost due to global warming makes mountain areas vulnerable to landslides. Transport facilities such as the mountain cable way stations, the lift masts and buildings become instable. Them costs incurred in bracing and anchoring such buildings when permafrost melts are extremely high. Hiking and climbing in these areas is also made more dangerous hence the loss of revenue due to potential risk of injury like rockfall or other health outcomes. Despite of cries over decreases in snow levels in the future, there is a possibility of winters with heavy snow like that of 1998/1999 that brought a great deal of losses in the winter tourism industry. The avalanche winter destroyed mountain cable ways, ski-lifts and chair lifts. The expenses incurred on sow clearing and the overall loss incurred was in excess of US $ 130 million. Adaptations for the future ski industry should therefore inculcate these historical weather unpredictability patterns in improving the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s financial viability. Adaptations and Strategies Used by the Tourism Industry to Mitigate Against the Impacts of Global Warming All tourism representatives at political,organizational, entrepreneurial or operational level have been in the forefront in pushing for adaptation strategies to curb climate change and help mitigate the potential effects of global warming. The experiences that project what is going to come in the future are prevalent today and is widely accepted that snow deficient conditions will determine whether winter tourism will remain a viable economic activity. To achieve this a multi sectoral framework that consists of the National Ski Areas Association(NSAA), Natural Resource Defense Council (NRDC), the federal government through the Senate Environment and Public Works, state stakeholders and other non governmental civil society organizations have developed a Climate Change policy aimed at reducing the concentrations of green house emissions. Ski resorts have been encouraged to adopt safe and efficient energy usage through the exploitation of renewable energy resources. It is this concerted effort in mitigating climate change challenges that also saw the support and endorsement of McCain/Lieberman Climate Stewardship Act to spearhead the fight against global warming. Specifically these attempts will help stabilize the US$ 5 billion mountain resort industry that currently offers employment to 165,000 people. Despite the existence of facts that predict radical effects in the industry, some argue that climate change issues are very exaggerated and politicized by science and the media. They argue that even though the effects could intensify problems in the industry, the majority of resorts in medium and high altitudes will be barely affected. Discussions should yield strategies that take into account the accuracy of statistical data disseminated on climate change and critically analyze the potential consequences. These issues should further be analyzed with reference to the global competition in the winter tourism sector. The facts that accrue from these forums should then be integrated in the construction of artificial snow flaking facilities, extend existing ski runs. Opening of high altitude ski resorts (2000-3000m)should be guided by the potential ecological effect. Climate change should not only be viewed as a negative challenge to winter tourism but also as a catalyst to drive radical structural adjustment and change. These developments should take into account the present risks and opportunities as well as foster development that is in line with the strive for environmental and socio economic sustainability. This will create a highly competitive market where customer preference is not only driven by snow availability but by the efficiency of service in some very high end but smaller less extensive resorts. Such top resorts will offer attractive offers for skiing tourists and hence reduce attention on expansive developments with less attractive offers. Artificial Snow making This is an ubiquitous strategy that is widely employed to mitigate the risk of climate change. Since its inception in 1953 at the GrossingerÃ¢â¬â¢s Resort in New York, it has grown to become the principle in the ski industry with an approximate 95% of the resorts engaged in the strategy. Its success has mainly been driven by its invaluable superior nature that offers a complete substitute to natural snow fall as well as making it possible to extend skiing durations(Daniel D. D. McGill, 2007). However, this technology is heavily dependent on temperature and is only effective in cases at low temperatures. Technological advances has seen the reduction of labor costs through the use of snow guns operated by computers. Snow making utilizes vast volumes of water and therefore the availability of water must be guaranteed for efficient blanketing of a large resort. Weather Derivatives. These are weather risk management tools structured to enable ski resorts make appropriate and informed decisions. They can be structured on snow fall temperature according to the customers specifications. Other factors that can be utilized to mitigate the effects of global warming include r4evenue diversification, cloud seeding and marketing to insulate the resorts against variability of weather by enabling them to maximumly capitalize when the weather is excellent. Conclusions Climate change and global warming remains will continue to remain key challenges in the winter tourism industry especially the ski resorts. Less snow, less glaciers and extreme weather events such as landslides are the key determinants of the future viability of ski resorts. Strategies instituted to meet the challenges of climatic change and mitigate the impacts of global warming can never be successful if implemented in isolation. It is commendable fact that the skiing industry has adopted sustainable building techniques,inculcated green principles and technology in their operations among others. These precedents are admirable but we have to admit that when taken in the global context, these measures do very little in stemming the worrying tide of global warming whose effects are felt indiscriminately. Global warming is a worldwide problem and therefore all the measures undertaken by the tourism industry must be in line with national and international guidelines that aim at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In the future, tourist developments will not only be evaluated and judged with respect to their environmental or socio-economic compatibility and viability but they will also be assessed with respect to the climate-compatibility angle.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
For a long time both parents and would-be students have been complaining about the inhumanity and unfairness of college admission process. It is too much, they say. Colleges are too concentrated on results and personal achievement and donÃ¢â¬â¢t pay nearly enough attention to kindness, good citizenship and authenticity of each particular student. They expect applicants to spend all their time studying, working, volunteering and taking part in extracurricular activities, without any respect to how students themselves want to spend their time and how they can contribute to their families and communities other than being good specialists in their chosen fields. Flexibility in Admission Process And it seems that this point of view has finally managed to get through to the ruling bodies of many prominent universities, including Harvard and Yale. The new trend, it seems, would be Ã¢â¬ËflexibilityÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â that is, admission committees are encouraged to concentrate not on how successful, efficient and result-oriented a particular student is, but on other things: good citizenship, personal responsibility, civic engagement, contributions to family life, importance of authenticity and a number of other more vaguely defined concepts. Importance of StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Household Chores In practical terms, it is going to alleviate the overall pressure on the students on the one hand and somewhat rectify the current situation of favoring students from more affluent background when it comes to evaluating their achievements. Students who cannot afford to volunteer to high-profile causes due to the lack of funds or the need to support their families either by working or taking some household chores off the hand of their parents and siblings will get an opportunity to mention these activities and expect them to be taken into account. Yale, for example, is going to introduce an additional essay question concentrating on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ engagement with and contributions to their families, communities and public good. Smaller List of Achievements In the long run, these novelties are expected to have great number of varying positive effects. Firstly, they are going to decrease the stress levels in students preparing for application. This is done by sending a message that a long list of achievements is no longer going to increase the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s chances of admission. For example, it can be done by limiting the blank spaces so that they can only accommodate no more than four or even two activities. As a result, students will no longer have a reason to fill their time with various different activities to the bursting point and there will be no opportunity for them to stand out of the crowd by means of overworking themselves. Another idea that occupies an important place in this project is the decrease in importance of standardized testing. A number of colleges have already made steps in this direction by making SATs and ACTs optional, but hopefully it is just a beginning of something bigger. All in all, one can say with certainty that we are in for some fascinating changes in educational system due to these alterations of admissions process. And it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be long for us to see the results.
Friday, December 27, 2019
Is the American dream accessible to all? In the Jazz age/Modernist novel The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, Fitzgerald suggest through Jay Gatsby, a new-money millionaire with a mysterious past, that its impossible for one to achieve his/her american dream. Fitzgerald narrates the novel through Nick Carraway, a old-money stock broker who has moved out to West Egg, Ã¢â¬Å"the less fashionable of the twoÃ¢â¬ for the summer of 1922. The other Ã¢â¬Å"EggÃ¢â¬ , named after their strange shape, East Egg, is where the old-money rich reside, and where NickÃ¢â¬â¢s cousin, Daisy and her husband Tom Buchanan live. Fitzgerald reveals that although there are people that live other AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s American Dream, it is impossible for one to achieve their dream if they are not born into it, by using motifs of the Social Hierarchy and using rhetorical devices such as imagery and symbolism. Throughout The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald narrates through Nick CarrawayÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. In the beginning of the book, Nick states that he isÃ¢â¬ Inclined to reserve all judgementsÃ¢â¬ . Fitzgerald is saying that Nick is a honest and reliable narrator. Before this quote Nick reveals that his father had once told him Ã¢â¬Å"Whenever you feel like criticizing anyone.. just remember that all the people in this world havent had the advantages that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve hadÃ¢â¬ . This quote is ironic, because throughout the entire book, Nick only associates with the wealthy, both Old-Money and New-Money. Fitzgerald is claiming that Nick is taking inShow MoreRelatedThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald1393 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesF. Scott Fitzgerald was the model of the American image in the nineteen twenties. He had wealth, fame, a beautiful wife, and an adorable daughter; all seemed perfect. Beneath the gilded faÃ §ade, however, was an author who struggled with domestic and physical difficulties that plagued his personal life and career throughout its short span. This author helped to launch the theme that is so prevalent in his work; the human instinct to yearn for more, into the forefront of American literature, where itRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1343 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHonors English 10 Shugart 18 Decemeber 2014 The Great Gatsby F. Scott Fitzgerald s 1925 novel The Great Gatsby is a tragic love story, a mystery, and a social commentary on American life. The Great Gatsby is about the lives of four wealthy characters observed by the narrator, Nick Carroway. Throughout the novel a mysterious man named Jay Gatsby throws immaculate parties every Saturday night in hope to impress his lost lover, Daisy Buchanan. Gatsby lives in a mansion on West Egg across from DaisyRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1155 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Great Gatsby The Jazz Age was an era where everything and anything seemed possible. It started with the beginning of a new age with America coming out of World War I as the most powerful nation in the world (Novel reflections on, 2007). As a result, the nation soon faced a culture-shock of material prosperity during the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s. Also known as the Ã¢â¬Å"roaring twentiesÃ¢â¬ , it was a time where life consisted of prodigality and extravagant parties. Writing based on his personal experiences, author F. ScottRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1166 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesin the Haze F. Scott Fitzgerald lived in a time that was characterized by an unbelievable lack of substance. After the tragedy and horrors of WWI, people were focused on anything that they could that would distract from the emptiness that had swallowed them. Tangible greed tied with extreme materialism left many, by the end of this time period, disenchanted. The usage of the literary theories of both Biographical and Historical lenses provide a unique interpretation of the Great Gatsby centered aroundRead MoreThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald845 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn F. Scott FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Great Gatsby, colors represent a variety of symbols that relate back to the American Dream. The dream of being pure, innocent and perfect is frequently associated with the reality of corruption, violence, and affairs. GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s desire for achieving the American Dream is sought for through corruption (Schneider). The American Dream in the 1920s was perceived as a desire of w ealth and social standings. Social class is represented through the East Egg, the WestRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay970 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesrespecting and valuing Fitzgerald work in the twenty-first century? Fitzgerald had a hard time to profiting from his writing, but he was not successful after his first novel. There are three major point of this essay are: the background history of Fitzgerald life, the comparisons between Fitzgerald and the Gatsby from his number one book in America The Great Gatsby, and the Fitzgerald got influences of behind the writing and being a writer. From childhood to adulthood, Fitzgerald faced many good andRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald2099 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesauthor to mirror his life in his book. In his previous novels F. Scott Fitzgerald drew from his life experiences. He said that his next novel, The Great Gatsby, would be different. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"In my new novel IÃ¢â¬â¢m thrown directly on purely creative workÃ¢â¬ (F. Scott Fitzgerald). He did not realize or did not want it to appear that he was taking his own story and intertwining it within his new novel. In The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, he imitates his lifestyle through the Buchanan family to demonstrateRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1607 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The Great Gatsby is an American novel written in 1925 by F. Scott Fitzgerald. One of the themes of the book is the American Dream. The American Dream is an idea in which Americans believe through hard work they can achieve success and prosperity in the free world. In F. Scott Fitzgerald s novel, The Great Gatsby, the American Dream leads to popularity, extreme jealousy and false happiness. Jay GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s recent fortune and wealthiness helped him earn a high social position and become one of the mostRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1592 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMcGowan English 11A, Period 4 9 January 2014 The Great Gatsby Individuals who approach life with an optimistic mindset generally have their goals established as their main priority. Driven by ambition, they are determined to fulfill their desires; without reluctance. These strong-minded individuals refuse to be influenced by negative reinforcements, and rely on hope in order to achieve their dreams. As a man of persistence, the wealthy Jay Gatsby continuously strives to reclaim the love of hisRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1646 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe 1920s witnessed the death of the American Dream, a message immortalized in F. Scott FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s The Great Gatsby. Initially, the American Dream represented the outcome of American ideals, that everyone has the freedom and opportunity to achieve their dreams provided they perform honest hard work. During the 1920s, the United States experienced massive economic prosperity making the American Dream seem alive and strong. However, in FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, the new Am erican culture build around that
Thursday, December 19, 2019
After some time, there has been an extension in our insight into the routes in which people create and learn. It is currently realized that children are starting to learn even before they are conceived. I frequently discover myself wishing I had known these things when my kids were creating. We all need our kids to be as well as can be expected be; with some information of how youngsters learn and the consecutive steps they must experience in numerous ranges of advancement, we can give numerous encounters at home to help them achieve their potential. At the point when teachers examine kids advancement, they for the most part discuss physical, mental, social, and enthusiastic improvement. Vygotsky contended that learning effects advancement and quite a bit of youngsters learning happens amid play. This is on the grounds that dialect and advancement expand on one another, and the most ideal approach to create competency is through association with others. He likewise contended that learning can prompt improvement, which can t be isolated from its social connection, dialect assumes a huge part in mental advancement and how youngsters build information. This is said to be an intricate relationship in the middle of learning and advancement. I can identify with Vygotsky s work, sociocultural hypothesis, in view of my 32 years of being a mother of four girls. With my most youthful little girl, now six years of age, I now understood that social abilities at an early ageShow MoreRelatedDevelopment Of A Child s Social And Emotional Development1377 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesup adaptation, which refers to the child s ability to adapt to his or her environment. Through PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theories we know understand about childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s competences at various stages, which in turn has been vital in our understanding of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s social and emotional development in the modern world. Another theory which has had an impact on our understanding of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s social and emotional development is that of socio-cultural theorists - Vygotsky. Vygotsky adds to our understanding of the variousRead MoreEarly Childhood Course At Savannah Technical College Essay1662 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmajor impact on molding the foundation for an understanding of early childhood as a whole. Although the scope covered a broad spectrum of early childhood, majority of the main focus was on early education. The work of Lev Vygotsky greatly influenced the field of early education. This paper will include a brief summary of VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s life, a description of his major ideas, and how those ideas impact early education today. VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s Life According to New World Encyclopedia (2014), Ã¢â¬Å"Lev Vygotsky wasRead MoreEducational Methods Influenced By Jean Piaget And Lev Vygotsky800 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. Both of these men provided influential theories, which had a significant impact on evaluating childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning styles and abilities. After years of research and observation, Piaget determined that intellectual development is the result of the interaction of individual and environmental factors. He felt that as a child develops and always interacts with the world around him, knowledge was established. Through his observations of his children, Piaget developed a stageRead MoreThe Cultural Point Of View942 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThese principles are regularly unwritten rules that assist to direct a personÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. Race and ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, social class, family conventions, associate gatherings, and age are a portion of the subgroups that may impact somebody s behavior. (Ellyson, et al., 2014) The sociocultural method is stating that individuals behave a certain way due to their social and cultural connection. Individuals are influenced by other individuals they are around on a regular basis. SocialRead MoreVygotsky s Theory Of Human Development1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLev Vygotsky was an educator and a theorist known primarily for his sociocultural theory. Vygotsky developed the sociocultural theory, which is the theory of human development through social and cultural influences (Aimin, 2013), during the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s-30Ã¢â¬â¢s. One of VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s focuses was the concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD), which is the idea of a child being appropriately challenged, this will be discussed further on. His theory stemmed from how childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning is impacted greatlyRead MoreEssay on Lee Vygotskys Theory of Learning673 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesLev Vygotsky developed his theory of learning in the 1920Ã¢â¬ â¢s but it was not until the late 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s that his ideas about learning became popular and were used to contribute to Ã¢â¬Å"ConstructivismÃ¢â¬ as a method of teaching. (Krause [et al.] 2010 p. p81). Vygotsky believed that learning and cognitive development were significantly influenced by social interactions that occur with in a particular sociocultural environment. There are four major influences on cognitive development. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The social/culturalRead MoreThe Increase Of Globalisation Over The Years Has Made Our World Increasingly Interconnected1195 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesANALYSIS-VYGOTSKY THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS THERE IS A LOT OF WORK/LITERATURE IN REGARDS TO SOCIAL LEARNING. Vygotsky s theory put particular emphasis on the position social and cooperative interactive has on the development an success of a child s learning. He argued that the community possess a crucial role for cognition where there is a need to work on a social level. This emphasis leads to his fundamental concept of Zone Proximal Development (ZPD), which he described as the child s Ã¢â¬Å"actualRead MoreThe Theory Of Intellectual Development Essay1395 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntellectual Development is a field of study in neuroscience and cerebrum look into focusing on a child s progression in regards to information taking care of, computed resources, perceptual capacity, lingo learning, and distinctive parts of emotional wellness and subjective mind science appeared differently in relation to an adult s point of view. So to speak, mental change is the improvement of the ability to think and get it. A broad piece of research has gone into perceiving how a youth imaginesRead MorePiaget Vs Vygotsky : Piaget And Vygotsky1314 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCompare Two Famous Educators: Piaget vs. Vygotsky Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky are often considered the most influential cognitive development and learning psychologists of the 20th century. Their research efforts have inspired numerous interpretations and spawned new outlets of approaching developmental psychology. The following paragraphs will analyze the theories of Piaget of Vygotsky and discuss how their research can be used to advance the use of cognitive development in learning, both traditionalRead MoreVygotsky And Vygotsky s Theory Of Development791 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky are prominent influential figures in the field of developmental psychology. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast their theories of development, as well as identified what can be gained through a better understanding of the theories. A Brief Summary of the Theories of Piaget and Vygotsky PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of development is based on four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational stage. Piaget believed development
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Describe about the Relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Performance. Answer: Introduction In the competitive business environment, a corporate social responsibility is the perceived idea in different parts of the world. Numerous organizations have distinguished the corporate social responsibility as the wellspring of enhancing their upper hand over different teams. Countless have set up arrangements identified with the well-being and security, customer strategy, hostile to separation and group relations. In any case, the achievement of corporate social responsibility improves the execution of the organization in future (Capaldi, 2016). The noteworthy execution of the organization keeps up its steadiness and piece of the overall industry over its rivals as it specifically influences the shareholder's riches in the business sector. The target of this examination study is to recognize the effect of corporate social responsibility on the organization's execution. Through the investigation of this report, an analyst will get a profound knowledge about how to actualize the CSR exercises with a specific end goal to expand the efficiency and gainfulness of an association which can be further connected by numerous associations. Hence, it is essential to look at this major corporate issue since it additionally influences the general public all in all (Capaldi, 2016). Objective of Research This exploration report intends to examine the bearing of corporate social duty or responsibility on the execution of the organization. The principle targets of this research are as per the following: To decide the bearing of corporate social duty or responsibility on the organization's exhibitions. To recognize the components affecting the organizations to execute the CSR exercises inside an association. To assess the connection between the corporate social responsibility and the workers' profitability. To measure the step to which organizations execute the CSR exercises. Research Questions How does the corporate social responsibility affect the organization's presentation? What are the elements which impact the organizations to actualize the corporate social responsibility and how it influences the representatives' efficiency? Hypothesis The hypothesis developed in this research is as follows: H1: Corporate social responsibility has a constructive bearing on the company's financial act. H0: There is one optimistic connection between the higher level of the Stars Salary and organizational performance. In this research study, the company's performance will be a dependent variable while customer satisfaction and corporate social responsibility are the two independent variables which impact the company's performance. Hence, these independent variables directly affect the dependent variable. Literature Review CSR and Performance A definition for CSR in light of the fit between business ethics and societal desires. The present study characterized the CSR as a practice from the business toward Employees where the business work and assist with various issues like working spot, representatives compensation, and representatives association with their boss (Corporate Social Responsibility, 2016). The Research characterize the performance as an organization accomplishment in result its routine of corporate social responsibility toward its representatives like working spot, compensation, and workers association with Managers (Corporate Social Responsibility, 2016). As indicated by the researcher, corporate social responsibility in numerous associations is alluded to as the corporate citizenship and duty towards the general public or the business morals. A CSR movement enhances and investigates the association's duty towards the general public's advantage which speaks to the necessary part of the Association (Jones, Bowd, and Tench, 2009). Customarily, there are different types of obligations in the CSR exercises including legitimate, ethical and financial. Moreover, the author has examined the before inquires about identified with this range of issue, including the social prerequisite and business sector drove methodology by an association in CSR exercises. The creator has additionally decided the corporate social steadfastness in the perspective of individual, organizational and societal (Jones, Bowd, and Tench, 2009). As indicated by the author, corporate social responsibility has a positive effect towards the representatives. The author has recognized that the CSR exercises do incorporate the financial exercises as well as includes the ecological and social obligation towards the general public and every one of the partners at a huge (Tilt, 2016). Moreover, the author has likewise concentrated on the authoritative practices and its viability towards the workers of the organizations to comprehend and assess their rights and duties which urge them to incorporate the CSR exercises as the piece of their organization's approaches. The duty of the organization draws in itself in the insurance of the earth, group relations and the expanded execution the nation over their rivals (Tilt, 2016). Organisations Corporate Social Responsibility towards the employees Providing the best opportunities and rewards to the employees are one of the great social responsibilities for the organizations which should be met by the managers (Trong Tuan, 2012). Socially responsible employees should be motivated and also should be rewarded by the managers to make the organization more responsible towards the corporate level management. According to many researches it is noticed that if a company ignores to meet these responsibilities in the workplace, that could turn into a loss of good employees and as well as the productivity of the organization (Trong Tuan, 2012). According to the researcher the company should bring the trust to employees that the work place is safe, both socially and physically. The working environment should be based on the employees' choice of operational place. There are numbers of laws that can be a good help to carry the corporate social responsibilities in the workplace. He laws are like; Employment Act (2010), Occupational Health an d Safety Act (2006) (Davila Gomez and Crowther, 2012). For Employee satisfaction in the workplace, a couple of scientists have grasped Maslow's speculation and used his concept of need satisfaction to evaluate this variable. Both employee satisfaction and dissatisfaction are impacted by the job environment and by how much job satisfaction are possible inside it (Davila Gomez and Crowther, 2012). Work satisfaction is a baffling factor enveloping differing viewpoints and subject to factors like working environment, salary or wages, administrative style and all around arranged employee relation (Responsible Leadership Systems Integrating Corporate Responsibility into Leadership Systems, 2016). Accordingly, the accomplishment of an organization can be broadly chosen and affected, together with profit and performance. Relationship between organization's performance and Corporate Social Responsibilities Company's members like managers, employees and stakeholders should follow some corporate social responsibilities to make the organizations more reputed and to hold their position among the social citizens (Kang, 2012). These corporate social responsibilities are also very much important for their private developments like well-behaved and self-managed in the work place during the task representation. From the research of 1991 to 2003 it is noticed that the corporate social responsibilities of an organization are making them more perfect in maintaining he ethical behaviors with the corporate citizens and also making the financial performance of an organization improved (Kang, 2012). Profit making is the pivotal reason behind an endeavor to grow and create while social responsibility is the fundamental commitment of the "state" that must focus on the establishment of its stakeholders with social value (Aras and Crowther, 2010). Researchers have concentrated that there must be predictable tries to reduce this money related qualification amongst the country; in any case, a state could be particular. Thus, strategic advancement ascends as a fundamental mechanical assembly towards an exhaustively engaged nearness and execution (Aras and Crowther, 2010). Corporate social responsibility effects on organization's reputation in Turkey by looking at the relationship between corporate social responsibility and reputation measures previously, then after the fact the financial crisis gave a system to investigating CSR (Sparrow et al., 2010). The model has two critical fixing CSR is, at any rate to some extent, a benefit spurred choice; diverse CSR exercises are gone for various gatherings of people. The study inspects the ramifications of their structure utilizing a "Visible" CSR list that catches customer situated CSR. CSR is more unavoidable in advertising raised organizations, and the effect of CSR on profits is more grounded in forceful endeavors, especially when a couple of various firms grasp such exercises, prescribing that CSR may be used as a technique for detachment in by and largely engaged environments (Sparrow et al., 2010). Current implication for management The critical findings of the present learn about the relationship amongst CSR and performance have suggestions as far as organizations administration arrangements (Sabitova, 2012). From an administration hone point of view, organizations need to embrace advanced corporate social responsibility practice to accomplish a superior in a world progressively requesting of social equity (Sabitova, 2012). This selection of cutting edge CSR practices ought to keep up or increment benefit in light of the findings of the present study. The aftereffects of the present study recommend that the great relationship amongst representatives and administration guarantee a security is working place to the representatives will accomplish high-profit making and expand the organizations' market share and high disrepute which mean practice the corporate social responsibility toward the employees' increment the organization performance (Camillo, 2015). Research Methodology The research methodology is single of the noteworthy portions of exploration. Besides, research methodology demeanours distinctive inspirations driving territory business sensibility, and the research methodology comprises diverse sorts of speculations and structures which are anticipating that the necessary part should do the exploration walk (Bellamy, 2012). Also, inquire about methodology is a control of investigating the procedures of playing out the examination. Research methodology will give motivations behind interest the distinctive strides that got together on the inquiry other than the issues went up against while finishing the undertaking. Other than that, the analyst utilizes the speculations as a bit of charge to make a fitting result of a fascinating plan (Bellamy, 2012). Methods Outline As showed by a researcher, research methodology springs the focal procedure of the techniques utilized as a bit of knowledge. Moreover, the analyst has preservationist positivism research reasoning, deductive research approach, and corresponding study outline (International Journal of Social Research Methodology: Theory Practice, 2012). However, information has been formed from optional and essential cradles and assessed for learning the methodology of primary interest and its effect on the general trade division. Research Philosophy A gathering of steps and copies are perceived by the research philosophy and it is particularly essential to the investigation. Three categories of research philosophy are utilized as a fragment of the training, for an occasion, positivism, validity(Knobe and Nichols, 2008). The research philosophy finishes up the overhaul of examination and depicts the strategy for the study which at long last delineated out by the analyst. The research philosophy solidifies phenomenology, positivist, and genuineness. Research Design It is the edifice of the research which illuminates single portions of research. Likewise, research design is in which a study wander acquires did, and it takes an appropriate research design, to get a better than average assembly to the assignment and behavior the whole research honestly. Then again, the research design is picked on the reason for the erudition of the researcher regarding the research focuses and objectives (Imitation and Design, 2013). Sample Size The specimen size of 50 individuals will be mulled over. It incorporates the top administration of 10 substantial associations in Australia. The respondents will be includes both the male and female individuals similarly to stay away from the biases (Assessment of planetary protection requirements for Mars sample return missions, 2009). These respondents will be chosen through comfort sampling strategy, which is a piece of non-probabilistic sampling. This method of sampling system has been picked with a specific end goal to increase simple access among the general population of top administration in an association. Thus, the poll designed for this research study will be involved 20 questions (Assessment of planetary protection requirements for Mars sample return missions, 2009). Sampling Method By the by, methods have generally been organized into two sections to be particular, prospect case and non-probability selection methods. In probability selection, the researcher picks the respondents indiscriminately yet the researcher must guarantee that the illustration addresses the whole masses of the research (Colbert, 2011). In none-probability instance, the plaintiffs are not chosen self-emphatically but instead on a purposive reason. Research process Two sorts of research methods like quantitative and qualitative exploration can be used for separating the substance of exploration. However, quantitative data is utilized for dismembering the first data accumulated from the part and it helps the analyst in agent the information in a graphical and arithmetical way. In this study, the specialist will use both the methods of exploration for analyzing the answer of the individuals which will help the expert in evaluating both clearing up and uncovering viewpoint of the examination. Data Collection Method There are two types of the method of data collection method; these are qualitative and quantitative research. Data collection method is a deliberate and disciplined system of investigation, intriguing. To break down the assembled data to get the responses for the research interrogations (Alshenqeeti, 2014). Quantitative data collection method In like manner, the quest for more exceptional data with the quantifiable usage investigation and every researcher must require a huge time and data. Quantitative data collection incorporates the utilization of arithmetical and precise figure to gauge data. Furthermore, from an assortment of individuals having one of a kind natures and master life to execute this method that will generally be a result of the principals of deductive approach (Phillips and Stawarski, 2008). Qualitative data collection method Qualitative data collection incorporates the usage of enlightening trades to gauge the data. Along these lines hunt down more conspicuous data with the utilization of gatherings with the help of this collection framework the specialist will be clever to assemble secondary data through an arrangement of the newspapers, diaries, books, magazines, etc. (Phillips and Stawarski, 2008). Gnat Chart Conclusion and Recommendation Given the data analysis and examination, effect of corporate social responsibility on the organization's execution will be quickly depicted in this segment. The potential issues and difficulties to this issue will be examined under this a player in the report. Moreover, assist proposal will likewise be given respect to the change of organization's execution in connection with the usage of corporate social responsibility. Probable Outcome As per me, the usage of CSR exercises in an association will incredibly enhance its execution and proficiency in the business sector. With the appropriation of corporate social responsibility, shareholders quality is additionally liable to be expanded with the upgrade in the representatives' efficiency. Along these lines, it expected that through a utilization of corporate social responsibility, association will enhance its money related execution and accordingly it likewise builds its piece of the pie over its rivals. References 6, P. and Bellamy, C. (2012).Principles of methodology. London: SAGE. Alshenqeeti, H. (2014). Interviewing as a Data Collection Method: A Critical Review.ELR, 3(1). Aras, G., and Crowther, D. (2010).A handbook of corporate governance and social responsibility. Farnham: Gower. Assessment of planetary protection requirements for Mars sample return missions. (2009). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. Camillo, A. (2015).Handbook of research on global hospitality and tourism management. Hershey: Information Science Reference. Capaldi, N. (2016). New (Other?) Directions in Corporate Social Responsibility.Int J Corporate Soc Responsibility, 1(1). Colbert, J. (2011). DUS An Efficient, Effective Sampling Method.JABR, 2(4), p.1. Corporate Social Responsibility. (2016).IJSR, 5(1), pp.1829-1831. Davila Gomez, A. and Crowther, D. (2012).Human Dignity and Managerial Responsibility. Gower. Imitation and Design. (2013).adr. International Journal of Social Research Methodology: Theory Practice. (2012).International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 15(6), p.ebi-ebi. Jones, B., Bowd, R. and Tench, R. (2009). Corporate irresponsibility and corporate social responsibility: competing realities.Social Responsibility Journal, 5(3), pp.300-310. Kang, J. (2012). The relationship between corporate diversification and corporate social performance.Strat. Mgmt. J., 34(1), pp.94-109. Knobe, J. and Nichols, S. (2008).Experimental philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Phillips, P. and Stawarski, C. (2008).Data collection. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Responsible Leadership Systems Integrating Corporate Responsibility into Leadership Systems. (2016). UniversitaÃÅ'Ãâ tsbibliothek der TU MuÃÅ'Ãâ nchen. Sabitova, S. (2012). Implication of voluntary carbon markets for introducing CSR in the forestry sector of Kazakhstan.Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 23(6), pp.686-700. Sparrow, P., Hird, M., Hesketh, A. and Cooper, C. (2010).Leading HR. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Tilt, C. (2016). Corporate social responsibility research: the importance of context.Int J Corporate Soc Responsibility, 1(1). Trong Tuan, L. (2012). Corporate social responsibility, ethics, and corporate governance.Social Responsibility Journal, 8(4), pp.547-560.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Measure For Measure References to venereal disease appear as early in the second scene of Shakespeare's Measure for Measure. Syphilis, the primary and most horrible of venereal diseases, ran rampant in Shakespeare's time. By giving a brief history of the disease in Renaissance Europe one can gain a better understanding of the disease which will provide a greater insight into the play which would have gone unknown. This brief history will include, the severity of the disease in fifteenth and sixteenth century Europe, believed origins and symptoms of the time period, and methods of curing or combating the disease.. By reading and analyzing passages referring to syphilis in Measure for Measure it is clear that Shakespeare himself believed in most of the truths established by the poet and physician Fracastor. Fracastor was the primary source and influence regarding studies of syphilis in Renaissance Europe. The disease we now commonly identify as syphilis is believed to have arrived in Europe for the first time in the late fifteenth century. Though there are few statistics from that period available to prove such an argument, there is plenty of evidence that supports that the disease suddenly emerged in great abundance during this time period. It is also believed that syphilis was much more severe then, than it has ever been since. Zinsser writes in his book, Rats, Lice, and History that: "There is little doubt that when syphilis first appeared in epidemic form, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, it was a far more virulent, acute, and factual condition than it is now (Rosebury 23)." The first time syphilis, called evil pocks at the time, was mentioned in print occurred on August 7, 1495 in the Edict of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian. In this document syphilis was believed to be a punishment sent from God for blasphemy and was described as something "which had never occurred before nor been heard of within the memory of man (Rosebury 24)." Between the years 1495 and 1498 there were a total of nine similar documents that emerged through out Western Europe. In 1530 Fracastor, a poet and physician, published the poem, Syphilis sive Morbus Gallicus, translated "Syphilis or the French Disease." The main character was a shepherd in Hispaniola named Syphilis. Syphilis caught the disease for disrespecting the Gods. At the time Fracastor believed in the previous documents, but would provide his own original ideas concerning how the disease reached Europe. He also alluded to possible treatments, that Shakespeare will later use in his plays. Fracastor used the name "syphilis" for both the main character and the disease he contracted. However, the name of the disease continued to be known as "the French disease." It was not until the 1850's, more than three centuries after Fracastor's poem, that the disease was called"syphilis." Fracastor's poem grew widely popular in Western Europe, and was believed to be mostly factual at the time. It might seem odd that a fictional poem with fictional characters would be widely regarded as truth, but under the extreme circumstances of the sixteenth century syphilis epidemic it makes perfect sense. Syphilis had caused terror in the hearts of the people in the sixteenth century due to its rapid spread. Physicians seemed helpless to cure it. No one could do anything, but believe in what Fracastor wrote. In the poem Fracastor had answers concerning its origin, symptoms, and cure for this new disease. He went along with the common belief that it appeared in the French army before Naples around the year 1495. "From France, and justly took from France his name, (Rosebury 31)." This quote provides the evidence concerning syphilis' former name, "The French Disease." He also discussed how he believed that it originated in America, and was brought back with Columbus and his men. This was the popular view of the day, and many researchers still find truth in it. What Fracastor truly believed, at the time, was that the positions of the planets influenced the outbreak of the disease. He believed that they lined up in such a way that provided great conditions for the emergence of the disease. In the poem Fracastor also states that the disease had very often a"extra-genital origin (Rosebury 34)." An observation he will later discuss further. He also goes on to discuss possible treatments that became popular in the sixteenth century, which also appeared in some of Shakespeare's plays. He recommends to get plenty of exercise, and to avoid wine and fish. He also includes using mercury, a very popular method of controlling