Thursday, November 21, 2019

Israeli Foreign Policy (1945-2001) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Israeli Foreign Policy (1945-2001) - Essay Example This invasion turned into the Israel's War for Independence, which was settled in 1949 with an armistice agreement that resulted in Israeli land increasing by 50%.2 President Harry S. Truman was the first US President who formally recognized the State of Israel, but only after heated disagreements within his cabinet, as the United States was worried about the Arab States, mainly because the Arab States controlled so much of the world's oil supply. Because of this, according to Danon (2012), the recognition of Israel by the United States was only symbolic, and the United States did not give Israel much support. In 1949, Israel signed armistice agreements between Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria. In 1948, the UN had adopted a resolution that Israel and the neighboring states should try to negotiate peace, and it also created a Palestine Conciliation Commission (PCC), however, all of the Arab states, with the exception of Turkey, voted against this. The Arab States actually continued t he aggression, despite the peace brokering. Egypt closed down the Suez Canal to Israeli shipping, and Egypt was ordered by the UN to reopen it in 1951, but Egypt refused. In 1955, Egypt imported arms to the Soviets, which would be used against Israel, and the Suez Canal was nationalized in 1956. In October of that year, Egypt signed a tripartite agreement with Syria and Jordan which placed Gamel Abdel Nasser, the President of Egypt, in charge of the armies of all three of those countries.3 That same year, 1956, Israel attacked Egypt, backed by Britain and France. However, according to Danon(2012), the reason why Britain and France went to war with Egypt was not because of Egyptian aggression towards Israel, but because Egypt had closed the Suez Canal, which meant that the British and France interests were affected.4 The United States did not show support for Israel in this conflict, as they had ordered Israel to withdraw from the area. The reason for this, according to Danon (2012) was because the United States was concerned that helping Israel would end up helping communists this is because so there so many Russian emigres into Israel, and that these emigres might be communists. This meant that during Eisenhower's tenure, there was lackluster support for Israel. Moreover, there was a cessation of hostilities, eventually, and the US supported the cessation, without demanding from Egypt a formalized peace agreement.5 The UN ended up taking control of the Suez Canal, and Israel withdrew from the Egyptian territory, while remaining in the mouth of the Gulf of Arab and in the Gaza Strip.6 This is what caused the largest rift between Israel and the United States to date, according to Danon (2012). The United States was angry that Israel remained in Egypt, and threatened sanctions and also threatened to outlaw American Jewish organizations that aided Israel. The pressure resulted in Israel withdrawing from Egypt, without Egyptian concessions, and the Suez Canal was still closed to Israeli ships.7 The fact that Egypt still had the Suez Canal closed to Israeli ships was what cause, in part, the 1967 Six-Day War. During this time, the Palestine Liberation Organization, or the PLO, also formed.8 During this period of time, Danon (2012) said that there was, overall, a lack of support from the United States, because the Unite

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